By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an fascinating a part of the lexicon: various, multiform and everchanging. additionally they express a good style in distribution. during this research, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the focus is on Dutch, yet prior experiences approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to check with and to construct on.
The publication begins with an advent on grading and gradability, and a type of the adverbs in keeping with the measure they show. subsequent, the several lexical resources from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the ebook is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations in regards to the transformed components, however these in regards to the atmosphere. issues contain absoluteness as opposed to gradability, confident as opposed to adverse overview, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical homes of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reviews are awarded during which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated extensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix supplies an summary of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Extra resources for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
12 There exist different views as to the motivation behind a reanalysis. Firstly, language acquisition is thought to play a role. Secondly, in the contact between different communities a change may occur. A third ap proach considers the role of speakers and hearers negotiating meaning. For the gradual, subtle change of meaning that is found in adverbs of degree, this latter one seems the most promising. Many adverbs of degree originate from qualifying adjectives or adverbs that were chosen in certain contexts for their emotive force and thus intensifying effect, such as terribly or magnificently.
The richest source, however, is formed by qualitative adjectives and adverbs: literally every word that originally denoted a striking property, such as THE ORIGIN 27 awful, mighty or mad, may be used to indicate a striking degree. New expressions of degree are just new choices from the known sources, and especially from this latter one. So Dutch onwijs 'unwise' has been popular since the 1970's in certain groups as adverb of degree, and more recently wreed 'cruel' and vet 'fat' have popped up as such among youngsters.
The evident advan tage of this explanation is that we need not bother how, in the generalization of the intensifying use, the positive, qualitative meaning that is still in use could be ignored so absolutely: in the case of irony, the strange shift to negative predicates is made deliberately. Later on, of course, the use with negative predicates may become more common and the ironical taste may disappear gradually. The reverse development, the generalization of the intensifying use of negatively qualifying expressions to the modification of positive predicates may be explained in an analogous way.
Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages by Henny Klein