By Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)
Numerous animal species stay in environments characterised through a seasonal relief within the availability of water, which frequently yet no longer constantly happens while temperatures are maximum. for lots of such animals, survival in the course of the hardest season calls for spending lengthy classes of time in a slightly inactive kingdom referred to as aestivation. yet aestivation is far greater than last inactive. winning aestivation calls for the choice of a formal microhabitat, variable levels of metabolic arrest and responsiveness to exterior stimuli, the facility to experience the correct time of yr for emergence, the protection of inactive tissue, and lots more and plenty extra. So, aestivation contains a posh choice of behaviors, ecological institutions and physiological alterations that modify throughout species of their style, value and path. This publication seeks to discover the phenomenon of aestivation from various views and degrees of association, starting from microhabitat choice to genetic keep an eye on of physiological changes. It brings jointly authors from the world over engaged on various systematic teams, techniques, and questions, yet who're all eventually operating to raised comprehend the advanced factor of aestivation.
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Additional info for Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects
Comp Biochem Physiol A 125:299–315 Jaeger EC (1948) Does the poor-will “hibernate”? Condor 50:45–46 Jaeger EC (1949) Further observations on the hibernation of the poor-will. Condor 51:105–109 Kayser C (1961) The Physiology of Natural Hibernation. Pergamon, London Keilin D (1959) The problem of anabiosis or latent life: history and current concept. Proc Roy Soc Lond 150:149–191 Keister M, Buck J (1964) Respiration: some exogenous and endogenous effects on rate of respiration. In: Rockstein R (ed) The physiology of the Insecta, vol III.
1c,d) and PKA or PKG in hepatopancreas whereas reactivation of SERCA was facilitated by protein phosphatases PP2A and PP2C in foot muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively (Ramnanan and Storey 2008). The commonality of PKG effects on both ion-motive ATPases suggest that this may be the kinase that naturally mediates aestivation-induced suppression of these enzymes in vivo. PKG has also been implicated in regulating enzymatic responses during anaerobiosis (another hypometabolic state) in marine molluscs (Brooks and Storey 1990b; Michaelidis and Storey 1990; Larade and Storey 2002) and was singled out as the kinase mediating aestivation-induced phosphorylation of PK in O.
Elegans have documented the key role of these signaling pathways in regulating the dauer state, a developmental arrest (diapause) that occurs in the third larval stage when environmental conditions are not conducive to adult reproduction of the nematode (Burnell et al. 2005; Mukhopadhyay et al. 2006). A recent study has explored the responses of Akt and various downstream targets under its control during aestivation in O. lactea (Ramnanan et al. 2007). Multiple criteria were consistent in showing that Akt was activated in foot and hepatopancreas of aestivating snails: measured Akt activity was approximately twofold higher, substrate affinities were lower, immunoblotting showed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form (Ser473), and incubation studies showed that only control Akt was susceptible to phosphorylation in vitro whereas aestivated Akt could be modified by protein phosphatases.
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects by Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)